Slowing Parkinson’s Progression Exercise Slows Progression of Parkinson’s – drkharkar

Please note that the effect of these interventions is still under research. Do NOT take any medication without a prescription of a registered doctor.
The Best Pain Medication for Parkinson’s Disease we have are very effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. But wouldn’t it be great to have some intervention that would slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease?

1. Rasagiline/Selegiline:

These work by suppressing an enzyme called “MAO-B” in the brain. There are two studies that suggest that these Best Pain Medication for Parkinson’s Disease may be neuroprotective, at least in the very early stages of Parkinson’s disease.

However, many neurologists think these studies are not conclusive. Many neurologists feel this effect is minimal. Also, these medications have many possible side-effects, some of which are bothersome. I call these medications “The brothers Karamazov” – Just like them, these have significant flaws and probably belong to another era.

Therefore, at this time, they are not used very commonly. Sometimes they are used in patients with very early Parkinson’s disease.

Relevant studies:

  1. The DATATOP study (1989)
  2. The ADAGIO study (2008)

2. Vitamin D:

It is critical to make sure your vitamin D levels are normal in Parkinson’s disease.

Our skin produces Vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight.

At a fundamental level, this is because normal Vitamin D levels are required for strong bones. Parkinson’s disease patients are likely to fall, and a fracture of the hip or the spine can be extremely disabling. Therefore, make sure your Vitamin D levels are normal.

If you tend to fall often, you should also do a test to check the density of your bones, called DEXA. If the density of your bones is low, you may require Best Pain Medication for Parkinson’s Disease (in addition to Vitamin D) to make them dense again.

A DEXA scan measures bone density. If your bones are not adequately dense, they can break easily.

But, guess what, Vitamin D may actually help relieve Parkinson’s disease as well!

  • People with low levels of Vitamin D may be at a higher risk for Parkinson’s disease (Knekt 2010).
  • It may decrease inflammation and may be neuroprotective in Parkinson’s disease (Calvello 2017)
  • In patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vitamin D may prevent falls, especially in younger patients (Hiller 2018). It does this by improving the postural corrections that prevent falls.
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    Vitamin D may help to prevent falls.
  • In patients with Parkinson’s, Vitamin D may prevent thinking and memory problems (Peterson 2013).
  • Although the evidence for this part is weak: Some studies indicate that low levels of vitamin D can be associated with worse motor function/movements as well (Soliman 2019)
  • Most tantalizingly, preliminary research indicates that Vitamin D supplements may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease!=This effect may be more prominent for some patients than others, based on genetics (Suzuki 2013).

Unfortunately, Vitamin D does not seem to have received the attention it deserves when it comes to the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Thankfully, as demonstrated by the studies mentioned above, this is rapidly changing. This requires thorough research. But will the money to conduct research on a low-cost treatment be made available? Time will tell.

At this point, it is not possible to recommend Vitamin D supplementation if your levels are normal. What is very easy to recommend is that most patients with Parkinson’s disease should have their Vitamin D levels measured.

If low, you should certainly try to bring them back to normal. This can be done by taking Vitamin D supplements, by eating foods rich in vitamin D or by increasing exposure to sunlight.

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Check your Vitamin D level. If it is low, you may need to take Vitamin D supplements.

If you start taking Vitamin D supplements, you should recheck your Vitamin D levels after a few weeks to make sure they are normal/increasing.

Relevant studies:

  1. Low vitamin D levels may place you at higher risk of Parkinson’s disease (Knekt 2010)
  2. Vitamin D may reduce inflammation and protect Dopamine-producing cells (Calvello 2017)
  3. Vitamin D may reduce falls (Hiller 2018)
  4. Vitamin D may help with balance – Study no.2 (Peterson 2013)
  5. Vitamin D may protect against thinking & memory problems associated with PD (Peterson 2013).
  6. Vitamin D may help both thinking and movement in Parkinsons disease (Soliman 2019)
  7. Vitamin D supplementation may slow progression of Parkinson’s disease (Suzuki 2013)

3. Vitamin E:

Vitamin E is a strong antioxidant. Just like CoQ-10, the hope is that it will decrease damage to Dopamine-cells by harmful oxygen radicals.

Almonds are a rich source of Vitamin E, an antioxidant.
Almonds are a rich source of Vitamin E, an antioxidant.

But the data seems to indicate otherwise. In fact, Vitamin E has been studied more thoroughly than CoQ-10. A large study published in the most respected journal in medicine (NEJM) strongly indicates that Vitamin E does not slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease (Shoulson 1993).

However, in medical research, just one study, however significant and well designed is not considered to be the final word. Recently, there have been studies that indicate that Vitamin E may be slightly beneficial (Schirinzi 2019). However, these are smaller and less thorough than the NEJM study.

Since the large NEJM study clearly concluded that Vitamin E is not beneficial, it is hardly prescribed by any doctor for Parkinson’s disease.

Of note, Vitamin E is found in nuts including Almonds & Walnuts. Including a few nuts in your diet may not be a bad idea. If you have trouble swallowing, there is a risk of choking if you try to eat whole nuts. Instead, crush them into a powder or incorporate them in your smoothie.

Relevant studies:

  1. Large multicentric study: Vitamin E is not helpful in Parkinson’s disease.
  2. Smaller questionnaire study published in a good journal (Zhang 2002)
  3. A very recent Italian study (Schirinzi 2019)

4. Statins (e.g. Atorvastatin):

Statins are medications that are given to decrease “bad” cholesterol. Some examples of statins are Atorva-statin, Rosuva-statin, Simva-statin, Fluva-statin etc.

Cholesterol lowering medications called Statins may affect the progression of Parkinson's disease.
Cholesterol lowering medications called Statins may affect the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

Patients with Parkinson’s disease can have decreased physical activity. Therefore, their cholesterol levels can increase and they may develop diabetes. Consequently, it is essential to check cholesterol and sugar levels regularly. Diet and increased physical activity can help to control cholesterol levels. If medications are needed, statins are probably the best medication for cholesterol.

No one knows how Statins help in Parkinson’s disease. However, this neuroprotective effect is not believed to be due to the lowering of cholesterol levels. Statins, in a yet-undiscovered way, may prevent damage to Dopamine-cells. In Mice, statins can neutralize chemicals that otherwise would cause Dopamine-cell damage (Selley 2005). Studies in humans indicate that patients who use statins may be less likely to develop Parkinson’s disease (Wahner 2008).

But, confusingly, high levels of cholesterol possibly protect against Parkinson’s disease! Some researchers have suggested that patients on statins have a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease, but it is not due to the statin but because they have high cholesterol!

The jury is still out when it comes to statin use for slowing Parkinson’s disease. But, there is absolutely no doubt that if your doctor has told you to take a statin for controlling your cholesterol, you should do so.

Relevant studies:

  1. Mice study: Protective effect of Statins (Selley 2005)
  2. Patients on statins may be less likely to develop PD (Wahner 2008)

5. CoQ-10 (Co-enzyme Q-10):

CoQ-10 is an antioxidant. In theory, it removes harmful oxygen radicals which can damage Dopamine-producing cells.

A small number of studies have been demonstrated some benefit in Parkinson’s patients. One study in Mice showed CoQ-10 might prevent damage to Dopamine-cells by toxic substances (Beal 1998). One other large study seemed to indicated that CoQ-10, especially in large doses (up to 1200 mg/day) might slow the progression of patients with Parkinson’s disease (Shults 2002).

While CoQ-10 may slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease, it probably is not very useful in the treatment of the patient’s current symptoms. A systematic analysis of all papers published up to 2017 concluded that there was no definite evidence of benefit (Zhu 2017).

Most doctors do not prescribe CoQ-10 for neuroprotection at this time since conclusive data is not available.

Relevant studies:

  1. CoQ-10 study in Mice (Beal 1998)
  2. University of California study on neuroprotective effect of CoQ10 in humans (Shults 2002)
  3. CoQ-10 for treatment of existing symptoms (Zhu 2017)

6. Selenium:

Selenium is a metal. Small quantities may be useful to maintain health, but large quantities can be harmful.

Selenium is an antioxidant as well. But there are no good studies that indicate whether it is useful in Parkinson’s disease.

Some researchers believe that low selenium levels may be one of the factors responsible for Parkinson’s disease. But most studies indicate that selenium levels are not low in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Some studies in rat/mice have provided weak evidence that selenium may be useful in Parkinson’s disease, but much more research is needed.

Because of the lack of any reliable data, almost no doctor uses selenium in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. My advice: Don’t take it.

Relevant studies:

  1. Brain levels of Selenium in Parkinson’s disease patients (Aguilar 1998).
  2. A study in Rats which indicates Selenium may be useful (Nutr 2015)
  3. A thorough review of Selenium & Parkinson’s disease (Ellwanger 2016)

7. Minocycline

Minocycline is actually an antibiotic. Minocycline is an antibiotic which may slow progression of Parkinson’s disease.

It is a spectacularly effective antibiotic, disabling or killing many types of bacteria. One of the “by-stander” effects is that it also disables cells within our own body called microglia.

Microglia are potent cells that help our body in destroying bacteria. But sometimes they can kill other cells in our body, including dopamine-producing cells! Therefore, scientists hope that Minocycline may protect Dopamine-cells by disabling Microglia.

Results in mice and rats have been very encouraging. However, this has not translated well into human benefits. The largest study of Minocycline in Parkinson’s disease conducted by the world-renowned National Institute of Neurological Disorders & Stroke (NINDS) failed to show a beneficial effect (Galpern 2008). The same institute tried to explore this topic again in 2014, with similar results (Parashos 2014).

However, the chapter is not closed on Minocycline use in Parkinson’s disease. The evidence in animals is strong. Therefore, researchers are still hopeful that Minocycline may be helpful. Further research should clarify this topic.

As of now, Minocycline should not (and is not) being prescribed to Parkinson’s disease patients.

Relevant studies:

  1. NINDS study no. 1 (Galpern 2008)
  2. NINDS study no. 2 (Parashos 2014)


Caution: This information is not a substitute for professional care. Do not change your medications/treatment without your doctor's permission.
Dr. Siddharth Kharkar

Dr. Siddharth Kharkar

Dr. Siddharth Kharkar has been recognized as one of the best neurologists in Mumbai by Outlook India magazine and India today Magazine. He is a board certified (American Board of Psychiatry & Neurology certified) Neurologist.

Dr. Siddharth Kharkar is a Epilepsy specialist in Mumbai & Parkinson's specialist in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

He has trained in the best institutions in India, US and UK including KEM hospital in Mumbai, Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), USA & Kings College in London.

Call 022-4897-1800

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NeuroPlus Epilepsy & Parkinson's Clinic - Dr. Kharkar IconNeuroPlus Epilepsy & Parkinson's Clinic - Dr. Kharkar

near LIC, Dr Balabhai Nanavati hospital, near LIC, Swami Vivekananda Road, LIC Colony, Vile Parle

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  • Avatar Paras Prabhu ★★★★★ 6 months ago
    Out patient is epileptic from about 10 years and her seizure gotten worse during the past year with the frequency of about 3-4 times a week.So we consulted … More Dr. Kharkar. He tried a few medicines, and within 1.5-2 months now the patient is feeling very well now. There are no seizures for 14 days currently.Dr. tried to keep medicines as minimum as possible. He also tried to keep the cost of the treatment minimum.When some of the medicines started showing side-effects, he was quick to switch the medicines to the better options.Overall I think we are getting a best of the available treatments. We thank you very much Dr. Kharkar.
  • Avatar Dr Shobha Sankhe ★★★★★ a month ago
    Dr Kharkar is gem of a doctor with tremendous patience, empathy, genuine concern for his patients .He guides them very methodically & scientifically … More for their neurological ill healthOur epilepsy patient is extremely happy with his treatment , Patient feels better by just visiting him too!May his selfless service to humanity flourish to reach all the needy patients!!
  • Avatar shrruti khanna ★★★★★ a month ago
    I consulted Dr Sidharth for my sister who has become very hyper and aggressive and we could not understand the issue. Keeping in mind she is someone with … More special needs Dr Sidharth was extremely understanding of the situation and did not put her through unnecessary investigation and avoided a very long stay at the hospital. He was infact more keen on her returning home to her natural environment. We highly appreciate Dr Sidharth for his effort and for looking into the matter with utmost care. It was a very difficult decision for my family to get my sister admitted but we are glad we did it under his care.Thankyou Doc.
  • Avatar Prashant Purohit ★★★★★ a month ago
    my name is prashant purohit. I m become completely bed ridden from last 9 months and was unable to walk. I couldnt find out the cause even after visiting … More many doctors and many hospital in Ahmedabad nd jodhpur.started losing hope. A good friend of mine suggested to visit a neurologist. After searching a lot, I came to know about Dr. Siddharth Kharkar and took his appointment in Nanavati Hospital. He examined and said that he suffered from \u201cPKD(PAROXYSMAL KNESIGENIC DYSKNESIA\u201c. He assured us to reverse this in 5 days time. And indeed this happened. I started recovering miraculously. today I am fully well fit I m walking as normal . Many Many thanks to Dr. Siddharth Kharkhar sir for giving me a new life.
  • Avatar Sanjay Pradhan ★★★★★ 7 months ago
    Dr. Kharkar is truly exceptional. He is extremely knowledgeable. But simultaneously, he is extremely patient and kind - taking the time and care to respond … More to all the questions. It is rare to come across a doctor who is not in a hurry to get on to the next patient, but instead, focuses on the one in front with full attention, expertise and compassion. A great experience.
  • Avatar N N ★★★★★ a year ago
    We visited Dr. Kharkhar for treatment regarding my mum - who is a multi-stroke patient and has aphasia. Certain medications were creating complications … More with her condition and Dr. Kharkhar was able to help mitigate the issue. We found him and his approach to be incredibly compassionate, considerate, individualized and patient-friendly. He advice is astute, up-to-date and empathetic. His treatment always comes from a deeply human place and is about seeing how to help the patient and their caregivers feel more at ease. Something that is quite rare and refreshing within the medical community.We feel that he genuinely cares about the patients that he is treating and is always kind and respectful in his communication. Moreover, his admin team is very efficient and prompt and it's a pleasure to deal with them.Would highly recommend Dr Kharkhar himself - though we must say our experience with Nanavati hospital itself has been less than ideal.Hope this helps.
  • Avatar Manish Ranjan ★★★★★ a year ago
    I have been visiting Dr Kharkar for treatment of my father. He is a very friendly doctor. He listens to our concerns with lot of patience. He also explains … More the issue in much greater details. He has really been of great help. My father is much better now.
  • Avatar Pinakin Shah ★★★★★ a year ago
    One of the best Dr. Gives complete attention and time to listen to patient's history, issues. Explains various options of treatment with pros and … More cons.
  • Avatar Lawrence Castellino ★★★★★ a year ago
    Exceptional experience with an expert,Dr. Kharkar is a knowledge house. It is rare nowadays to find doctors with patience, knowledge, and a flair for … More handling patient’s questions, besides Dr. Kharkar’s bedside manners are exemplary. I am privileged to be treated by such an amazing soul. I have told him and will repeat it here that “I am advancing my move back to India although I am a US Citizen, because I know I am in good hands and will be well taken care of. Thanks Dr. Kharkar for your selfless service!
  • Avatar Hemant Kansara ★★★★★ a year ago
    Great doctor!! Really appreciate.The doctor diagnosed to my sister correctly and start treatment, she has good improvement after taking medicine prescribed … More by doctor as no epilepsy attake. We have good experience with the doctor. Thank you

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Noted as one of the best Neurologists in Mumbai

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Ex-Assistant Professor, University of Alabama, USA

Outlook India - Best neurologist in Mumbai